Child and Adolescent Development Part 2

1. Which major paradigm of learning focuses and explores a learner’s inner mental activities, such as thinking, memory, knowing, and problem-solving?

A. Behavioral theories

B. Cognitive theories

C. Field and Gestalt theories

D. Social theories

Answers – B: Cognitivism is the study in psychology that focuses on mental processes, including how people perceive, think, remember, learn, and solve problems.

2. Skinner propounded the notion that learning is a result of change in overt behavior caused by the events that occur in the environment, such as school.

A. Shaping of behavior

B. Operant conditioning

C. Behavioral chaining

D. Reinforcement Schedules

Answer – B: B.F. Skinner’s theory which is the “Operant Conditioning”, suggested the idea that learning is a function of change in overt behavior. Changes in behavior are the result of an individual’s response to events (stimuli) that occur in the environment.

3. Based on Piaget’s theory of moral development, at what age do children accept that all rules are made by some authority figures (e.g. parents, teacher, God), and that they should never ever break these rules?

A. Ages 11 to 12

B. Ages 5 up to 7-8

C. Ages 9 to 11

D. Infancy to age 5

Answer – B: Under Piaget’s moral development theory are the two stages heteronomous morality and autonomous morality. The first stage, heteronomous morality, occurs at 5-8 years of age. In which rules and laws are conceived of as unchangeable and children value the consequences of an action. The second stages autonomous morality is displayed at 10 years of age and older, in which children come to understand that laws are not absolute, and the actor’s intentions matter more than the consequences.

4. When little Sofia behaves well so that she could get a star from Teacher Ness, little Sofia falls under which level/stage of Kohlberg’s Moral Development Theory?

A. Conventional for social approval

B. Pre-conventional for mutual benefit

C. Pre-conventional out of fear out of the teacher.

D. Post-conventional for social contact of the common good.

Answer – B: In Kohlberg’s theory, the second stage under preconventional level is known as Mutual Benefit or Instrumental Relativist, such that the child’s morality is anchored on rewards. 

5. Among the major learning theories below, which theory emphasizes the interaction of an individual and the learning environment? 

A. Social theories

B. Field and Gestalt theories

C. Cognitive theories

D. Behavioral theories

Answers – B: Field and Gestalt theories focus on how the individual perceives the learning environment or situation, and how such environment impacts him/her.

6. According to Erikson, the psychological stages of human development start from ___________ to __________.

A. infancy: adulthood

B. early childhood: adolescence

C. minority: seniority

D. birth: death 

Answer – D: Based on Eric Erikson theory, he beleived that in a series of stages, the personality of a child is developed. He also emphasized the impact of social experience across the whole lifespan. Each stage in Erikson’s theory is concerned with becoming competent in an area of life, starting from the first crisis/stage Trust vs. Mistrust upon birth, until the last stage Integrity vs. Despair, where one is nearing death.

27. Ryan gets a lot of pleasure from working. Based on Erikson’s Psychosocial Theory, this act of Ryan shows ______________.

A. Industry

B. Intimacy 

C. Identity

D. Trust

Answer – A: Industry, as defined by Erikson, is the feeling of competence or achieving mastery in a specific skill. One is said to be industrious when he gets a great deal of pleasure from working.

8. For Erik Erikson, unsuccessful resolution of the adolescent stage “Identify vs. Role Confusion” may lead to maladaptive behavior known as “fanaticism” In which one believes his way is the only way, leaving no room for tolerance. This behavior is quite prevalent today with people who believe in ____________.

A. unity of all notions

B. terroristic ideologies

C. democratic principles

D. globalization in borderless world

Answer – B: According to Erikson, maladaptive behavior happens when there is excess of the positive disposition, and too little of the negative. Fanaticism results from too much of identity during adolescent stage. Terroristic ideologies or extreme views adhere to the fanatical belief “my way is the only way.”

9. Jerome Bruner, who developed his own learning theory, felt that ideally ________ is the best stimulus for learning, not grades or class ranking.

A. Model instruction

B. Reward and punishment

C. Remodeling instruction

D. Interest in the subject matter

Answer – D: Bruner investigated motivation for learning. He realized that interest in the subject matter is still the best stimulus for learning. He opposed extreme competitive goals, such as grades or class ranking.

10. When people are now engaged more than ever in the saving of the environment amidst climate change and other pressing environmental issues, they already have high aptitude for _________ thinking.

A. reversible

B. decentering

C. conservation

D. abstract 

Answer – A: Piaget defined reversibility as the ability to recognize that objects can be changed and returned to their original condition. Saving the environment holds the same principle, that despite the changes of the environment, it can be restored back to its original beauty. Conservation, based on Piaget, is the awareness that the quantity of an object remains the same despite the change of its appearance. This is not true in the case of our environment.

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