Child and Adolescent Development Part 2

 

 1. Which of the following is considered as a developmentally, appropriate practice for preschool learners?

A. Always give reward and never punish.
B. Activities must be hands-on and not written.
C. Use colorful, attractive, and challenging materials.
D. Make activities too easy, simple, and has only for a short period of time.

Answer – C: In early childhood education, teachers must give attractive and highly engaging materials and activities, and always giving rewards are practices that do not promote authentic learning.

2. Because motivation comes before learning, Teacher Carl should —-

A. teach concepts from simple to complex.
B. follow the interest of the students in assigning task.
C. consider age level of students in teaching certain concepts.
D. give the same task to all students in a particular learning level.

Answer – B: According to Bruner, interest in the subject matter is the best motivation for learning.

3. Teacher Renita never fails to give positive feedback, and realistic praise to her students. Teacher Renita does this so that her students will ___________.

A. be motivated to study.
B. know what to do.
C. like and love her.
D. praise her.

Answer A -: Most theories of motivation agree that offering praise and constructive feedback for students ‘work and efforts can increase students’ ability to ‘bounce book’ in the face of academic setbacks and other difficulties.

4. All of these statements are considered cognitivist principles, EXCEPT —–

A. Belief of the non-observable behavior
B. Preference to concentrate on analyzing cognitive process.
C. Studying of the structures and components of information processing.
D. Concluding based on observation of external manifestations of learning.

Answer D: Cognitivism assumes that humans have the capacity to process and organize information in their mind. It is concerned less with visible behavior and more with the thought processes behind it. Meanwhile, behaviorism only concerns itself with behavior that can be observed.

5. According to Ausubel’s theory, to learn meaningfully, individuals must relate new knowledge to relevant concepts they already know.

A. Cognitive Behavior Modification
B. Cumulative Learning
C. Information Processing
D. Meaningful Reception Learning

Answer – D: In David Ausubel’s view, to learn meaningfully, students must relate new knowledge (concepts and propositions) to what they already know. This became widely known as the Meaningful Reception Learning Theory.

6. All of the following analogies represent the right correlation between processes and changes in human development, EXCEPT:

A. Biological: language
B. Emotional: mood
C. Social: relationship
D. Cognitive: thought

Answer – A: All options represent correct pairing except for option A, Language development involves more of a cognitive process rather than biological.

7. Teacher Sofia gives her class some puzzle games to solve. She lets her students to work in groups to make sure her students learn new schema more efficiently. This situation exemplifies the theory of —–

A. Albert Bandura’s Social Learning Theory
B. Jean Piagets Cognitive Constructivism
C. Lev Vygotsky’s Social Constructivism
D. Urie Bronfenbrenner’s Ecological Systems Theory

Answer – C: Vygotsky believed that the child is a social being, and cognitive development is led by social interactions. His Socio-cultural Theory has also been known as Social Constructivism. On the other hand, Piaget felt that the child was more independent, and that development was guided by self-centered, focused activities. His Cognitive Development Theory is also referred as Cognitive Constructivism.

8. Learning takes place through the relationships between people and connecting prior knowledge with authentic, informal, and often unintended contextual learning. Which theory posits that learning is affected by the teaching environment?

A. Individual Differences in Learning
B. Learning Modalities
C. Learning Styles
D. Situated Learning

Answer – D: Lave (1990), in his Situated Learning Theory, posits that learning is embedded within activity, context, and culture.

9. A child typically finds himself simultaneously enmeshed in different ecosystems, from the most intimate home ecological system moving outward to the larger school system and the most     expansive system, which is society and culture. Each of these systems inevitably interacts with and influences each other in every aspect of the child’s life. This concept of development was explained by ——

A. David Ausubel
B. Urie Bronfenbrenner
C.  Robert Gagne
D. Lawrence Kohlberg

Answer – B: Urie Bronfenbrenner was a Russian-born American developmental psychologist who is most known for his Ecological Systems Theory of child development.

10. According to Bronfenbrenner, this term refers to the bigger social system which includes mass media that influences the life of a child.

A. Exosystem
B. Mesosystem
C. Macrosystem
D. Microsystem

Answer – A: According to Bronfenbrenner, the exosystem contains environmental elements that have a profound influence on a child’s development, even thought that child is not directly involved with them. Factors such as mass media, school board, local government, and extended family usually belong to the exosystem.   

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