1. Which of the following is considered as a developmentally, appropriate practice for preschool learners?
Answer – C: In early childhood education, teachers must give attractive and highly engaging materials and activities, and always giving rewards are practices that do not promote authentic learning.
2. Because motivation comes before learning, Teacher Carl should —-
Answer – B: According to Bruner, interest in the subject matter is the best motivation for learning.
3. Teacher Renita never fails to give positive feedback, and realistic praise to her students. Teacher Renita does this so that her students will ___________.
Answer A -: Most theories of motivation agree that offering praise and constructive feedback for students ‘work and efforts can increase students’ ability to ‘bounce book’ in the face of academic setbacks and other difficulties.
4. All of these statements are considered cognitivist principles, EXCEPT —–
Answer D: Cognitivism assumes that humans have the capacity to process and organize information in their mind. It is concerned less with visible behavior and more with the thought processes behind it. Meanwhile, behaviorism only concerns itself with behavior that can be observed.
5. According to Ausubel’s theory, to learn meaningfully, individuals must relate new knowledge to relevant concepts they already know.
Answer – D: In David Ausubel’s view, to learn meaningfully, students must relate new knowledge (concepts and propositions) to what they already know. This became widely known as the Meaningful Reception Learning Theory.
6. All of the following analogies represent the right correlation between processes and changes in human development, EXCEPT:
Answer – A: All options represent correct pairing except for option A, Language development involves more of a cognitive process rather than biological.
7. Teacher Sofia gives her class some puzzle games to solve. She lets her students to work in groups to make sure her students learn new schema more efficiently. This situation exemplifies the theory of —–
Answer – C: Vygotsky believed that the child is a social being, and cognitive development is led by social interactions. His Socio-cultural Theory has also been known as Social Constructivism. On the other hand, Piaget felt that the child was more independent, and that development was guided by self-centered, focused activities. His Cognitive Development Theory is also referred as Cognitive Constructivism.
8. Learning takes place through the relationships between people and connecting prior knowledge with authentic, informal, and often unintended contextual learning. Which theory posits that learning is affected by the teaching environment?
Answer – D: Lave (1990), in his Situated Learning Theory, posits that learning is embedded within activity, context, and culture.
9. A child typically finds himself simultaneously enmeshed in different ecosystems, from the most intimate home ecological system moving outward to the larger school system and the most expansive system, which is society and culture. Each of these systems inevitably interacts with and influences each other in every aspect of the child’s life. This concept of development was explained by ——
Answer – B: Urie Bronfenbrenner was a Russian-born American developmental psychologist who is most known for his Ecological Systems Theory of child development.
10. According to Bronfenbrenner, this term refers to the bigger social system which includes mass media that influences the life of a child.
Answer – A: According to Bronfenbrenner, the exosystem contains environmental elements that have a profound influence on a child’s development, even thought that child is not directly involved with them. Factors such as mass media, school board, local government, and extended family usually belong to the exosystem.