Child and Adolescent Development Part 3

1. Alvin wants to apply metacognition after his class in Physics. Which of the following questions should he ask himself at the metacognitive level?

I. Why did I not learn this at first?

II. Why has this lesson to do with me?

III. How should I do this to be sure of results?

IV. What is the best way to arrive at the solution?

A. II only

B. I, III and IV

C. II, III, IV

D. I, II, III

Answer – D: All options contain words pertaining to self, such as “I” or “me” except for option D. Metacognition is the process of developing self-awareness and the ability to self-assess.

2. Of the following skills in learning, which does NOT require metacognition?

A. Problem-solving

B. Independent learning 

C. Factual and concrete thinking

D. Monitoring own comprehension

Answer – C: Metacognition, simplified as thinking about thinking, involves deeper processes of thinking. Of all the options, Option C “Factual and concrete thinking does not involve metacognition.

3. According to BF Skinner, reinforcement which is a type of consequences that will increase the likelihood of a person’s behavior to happen again, can be either positive or negative. Which of the following teacher’s pronouncements would fall under Skinner’s definition of negative reinforcement?

A. “No permit, no final exam.”

B. “The exam is postponed indefinitely.”

C. “Those who miss the final exam will receive a failing mark.”

D. “No final exam for those with midterm grade of 1.25 of higher.”

Answer – D: Based on Skinner’s Operant Conditioning Theory, Options A and C are considered punishment as such pronouncements attempt to diminish the undesirable behavior. Option B is ambivalent as it can be viewed either as punishment or reinforcement depending on the student’s perspective. Option D is a clear example of negative reinforcement, which is removing of something unpleasant (e.g. exams) to encourage more the desirable behavior (e.g. having high grades). 

4. Which among the applications below is rooted from Skinner’s Theory of Operant Conditioning?

A. Computer-assisted instruction

B. Project Method

C. Mastery Learning

D. Process Flow

Answer – A: Historically, Computer-Assisted Instruction (CAI) was influenced by Skinner when he built a teaching machine in 1954 which could teach spelling and arithmetic and could give reinforcement (such as congratulatory comment) 

5. Gestalt Theory is focused on the experience of contact that occurs in the here and now. It also considers with interest the life space of teachers as well as students. In this theory, _________ occurs through contact sharing of ideas between teachers and students.

A. authentic learning

B. modelling learning

C. substitution learning

D. vicarious learning

Answer – A: Mario Polito, an Italian psychologist, write about the relevance of Gestalt psychology to education. In his paper “How Gestalt theory can facilitate teaching and learning processes, “the conduct experience between teachers and students is given value: authentic meeting based on sharing ideas and affections.

6. Of the following classroom practices, which is considered a Pavlovian conditioning adopted by the classic or traditional educators but not anymore by the liberal or progressivist teachers?

A. test and quizzes

B. punitive measures

C. examinations and feedback

D. monitoring and assessment

Answer – B: Traditional teaching is so focused on external discipline, which means it is heavy on either rewards or punishments, or both. The progressivist way emphasizes positive intrinsic motivation when children learn. Options A, C, and D are ways of assessing students ‘learning that are still prevalent up to this day.

7. Pressured to finish all the topics mandated in the curriculum, Teacher Danny kept on giving lectures in his classes while his students remained seated to listen. What time-tested principle of learning did Teacher Danny violate in the given situation?

A. Learning is an active process.

B. Learning is a discovery of ideas.

C. Learning is a collaborative process.

D. Learning begins with setting of outcomes.

Answer – A: “Keeping on giving lectures while students remined seated” clearly violates one of the time-tested principles of learning – learning must be an active process.

8. Teacher Rodulfo asked his learners to see the link and relevance of their new lesson to their own personal experiences and share them with the class. There, teacher Rodulfo supports which principle of learning?

A. Learning is an active process.

B. Learning is cooperative and collaborative process.

C. Learning is the discovery of personal meaning of ideas.

D. Effective learning begins with setting of clear expectations and learning outcomes.

Answer – C: Linking the lesson to personal experiences adheres to the constructivist principle. “Learning is the discovery of personal meaning of ideas.”

9. In a Science class, Teacher Karen demonstrated to her students how to do the science experiment. With reference to Bandura’s different kinds of models, Teacher Karen, who demonstrated a behavior in front of the learners, is an example of a _________ model.

A. Verbal

B. Symbolic

C. Live

D. Virtual

Answer – C: Albert Bandura identified 3 basic models of observational learning live, verbal instructional, and symbolic. A live model involves an actual individual demonstrating or acting out a behavior (just like Teacher Karen).

10. During a basketball training, Coach Herbert tells one of his players to look convincing when making a fake pass. In Bandura’s social learning theory, Coach Herbert exemplifies as _________ model.

A. Live 

B. Symbolic

C. Verbal

D. Virtual

Answer – C: According to Bandura, verbal instructional model involves descriptions and explanations of a behavior. Symbolic model, meanwhile, involves display of behaviors in books, films, TV programs, or online media.

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