Child and Adolescent Development Part 3

1. Which of the major learning theories defines learning as the changes in what people say or do?

A. Social theories

B. Cognitive theories

C. Behavioral theories

D. Field and Gestalt theories

Answer – C: Behavioral theories or behaviorism is only concerned with observable behaviors, and states that all behaviors are learned through interaction with the environment.

2. When the Reproductive Health Law was passed in the Philippines, it was conformed with a lot of controversies and public debates as numerous pro-life groups believed that the law will open doors for abortion. The groups who went to protest belong to Kohlberg’s ____________ stage of moral development.

A. Conventional to gain social approval

B. Conventional by following religious law belief

C. Post-conventional for social contract

D. Post-conventional for universal ethical principles

Answer – C: Kohlberg’s social contract (stage 5, Post conventional level) characterizes people who recognize that rules are just social agreements that can be changed when necessary, especially if rules are not moral.

3. Herbart, who founded pedagogy as an academic discipline, advocated the formal steps in teaching which consequently will increase the learner’s intrinsic motivation. Based on the list below, what should be the proper order of steps in teaching?

I. Present the topic.

II. Prepare topic of interest

III. Inductive questioning

IV. New knowledge relate to the existing knowledge 

A. III, II, I and IV

B. I, II, III and IV

C. II, III, I, and IV

D. II, I, III and IV

Answer – D: The original steps of Herbartian Methods of Teaching are: (1) preparation, (2) presentation, (3) comparison or analysis, (4) generalization, (5) application, and (6) recapitulation.

4. Pavlov’s dog experienced stimulus generalization when it began to salivate to sounds different than the sound of the original bell. Which of the following current social events is considered a manifestation of stimulus generalization in the field of education?

A. School opening is in June.

B. OBE is the new approach to learning.

C. K to 12 is now implemented in schools.

D. Scholarship is given to the highest honors.

Answer – B: What is now being generalized or widely practiced in the Philippine educational system across all levels and disciplines is the adoption of outcomes-based education as a pedagogical approach.

K to 12 implementation is not a product of conditioning, but a legal requirement. Options A and D are only true to some schools.

5. Teacher Ruby said to her class, “It is important to pay attention to this part of the lesson, as the rest of the material is closely based upon it. “Hearing this, Joven listened very carefully. When the lesson is seen as important that made Joven becomes intrinsically motivated to learn, he is in the __________ level of processing.

A. Cognitive system

B. Metacognitive system

C. Between cognitive and metacognitive system

D. Self-system

Answer – D: Harry Sullivan developed the concept of self-system (1953), which posits that if the task is judged as important, the learner will be motivated to engage in it in contrast, if the task is judge at less important, then the learner become less motivated for task engagement.

6. According to Lev Vygotsky, when the learner is in his Zone of Actual Development that can perform the skill ________.

A. assisted by teachers

B. alone

C. assisted by adults

D. self and peers

Answer – B: In Vygotsky’s theory, there are three identified zones: (a) zone of actual development, (b) zone of proximal development, and (c) zone of potential development. In the zone of actual development, the child can successfully accomplish the tasks alone or without assistance.

7. Based on Vygotsky’s theory, when the learner cannot do yet even with the help of someone else, he said to be in the zone of ______________ development.

A. actual

B. potential 

C. proximal

D. social

Answer – B: In the zone of potential development, the child cannot accomplish the task even with considerable assistance or support. Whereas, in the zone of proximal development, the child can accomplish the tasks with some assistance or support.

8. Under which category of disabilities do Down’s syndrome, Prader Willi syndrome and Fragile X syndrome belong?

A. Autism 

B. Intellectual Disabilities

C. Learning Disabilities

D. Other Health Impairment 

Answer – B: Intellectual disabilities, formerly mental retardation, is a category of disability characterized by significant limitations both in intellectual functioning (reasoning, learning, problem solving) and in adaptive behavior, which covers a range of everyday social and practical skills. Down syndrome, Fragile X syndrome and Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorder are all examples of ID or Intellectual disabilities.

9. Who is the best equipped to lead in the formulation of an Individual Education Plan for Special Children?

A. Child therapists

B. Special education teachers

C. Parents of special children

D. Child psychologist

Answer – B: Although IEP or Individualized Educational Plan for children with disabilities is prepared by a multi-disciplinary team, the special education teacher must lead in its development and even in the implementation.

10. In chronological order, arrange the stages of prenatal development in human growth:

I. Fertilization of Zygote

II. Blastocyst attaches to the wall of the female uterus.

III. Male sperm and female egg chromosomes unite.

IV. Zygote divides to cells from 2 to 4 to 128 cells.

A. I, II, III and IV

B. III, I, II, IV

C. III, I, IV and II

D. IV, III, II, and I

Answer – C: During prenatal development, the sequential process involves: (a) unity of sperm and egg, (b) ovum is fertilized, becoming a zygote, (c) zygote undergoes mitosis from one cell, to 2, until it becomes a hollow ball of 64-128 cells, (d) the cell mas becomes a blastocyst, which then attaches to the uterine wall and is implanted.

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