Based on Kohlberg’s Stages of Moral Reasoning, which statement is TRUE about moral development and children’s behavior in the classroom?
A. Children show a high degree of behavior problems in stage 1 because they do no moral thinking.
B. Children show the highest degree of problems in stage 2 because they subscribe to the rationale. “You hit me and I will hit you back.”
C. Children show the highest degree of problem behaviors in stage 4 because they feel that rules are unimportant and they can also do as they please.
D. No relationship has been found between moral stages and children’s behavior in the classroom because they are independent developmental domains.
B. Young children has a very limited degree of morality. It is generally true that children who misbehave (e.g. petty fights) justify that “If somebody hurt me, I must get even.”
Lawrence Kohlberg argues that the distinctions between the three levels of moral reasoning have to do with
A. the degree of internalization.
B. the social pressure of peers.
C. the severity of punishments experienced.
D. the immediacy of the consequences for moral actions.
A. Based on Kohlberg’s theory, what distinguishes the pre-conventional, conventional, and post conventional morality has the highest degree since values or ethics are deeply internalized by the person.
Which teacher is MOST LIKELY promoting moral development in his or her students?
A. Mr. Reyes constantly points out moral dilemmas of history to his students and engages them in discussion as much as possible.
B. Mr. Ramon focuses his attention on the effects that his students’ misbehavior will have on themselves.
C. Ms. Lopez does not give her students reasons for why some behaviors are wrong and others are right.
D. Ms. Karen does not intervene when her students misbehave, thus, they learn to work out problems among themselves.
A. According to Kohlberg, the best way to strengthen students’ sense of morality is by giving them moral dilemmas and discussing with them how to weight the morality of their decisions or actions.
When Anton was 5 months old, he looked at a toy train; but when his view of the train was blocked, he did not search for it. Now that he is 9 months old, he does search for it, reflecting his development on the concept of:
A. Object permanence
A. During infancy or babyhood, children are under preoperational stage based on Piaget. One of the salient characteristics of children in this stage is object permanence which is “the fact that objects, events, or even people continue to exist even they are not in the infant’s direct line of sight.”
Jessica dislikes public speaking. She declines most social engagements to ensure that she does not have to speak in public. Jessica’s behavior is an example of which defense mechanism?
D. Reaction Formation
B. Withdrawal is one of defense mechanisms developed by Freud. The person is withdrawing when she moves away from the circumstances or people that cause tension, frustration or pain.
Allan spends a great deal of time working and trying to establish his career. He also has been thinking about his personal relationship is going and considering whether it could be long-term and lead to establishing a family. Allan is MOST LIKELY in:
B. early adulthood
C. middle adulthood
D. late adulthood
B. Establishing one’s career, engaging in romantic relationship, and establishing a family are all developmental tasks listed by Havighurst under early adulthood stage.
In one study, those old adults who experienced memory loss or forgetfulness have a dormant or passive lifestyle. While those old adults who have retained their sharp memory regularly engage themselves in reading, exercise, and other meaningful activities. This is an example of how development is:
D. Plasticity is the quality od being easily shaped or molded. Neuroscientists have proven that the gray matter (or the brain) can actually shrink or thicken; neutral connections can be refined or weakened. Changes in the physical brain manifest as changes in our abilities. Our brain adapts to the kind of environment or lifestyle we are in.
Mark was undernourished and troubled by the thought of his father and mother about to separate that he could not concentrate on his studies and would likely fail in school and repeat his grade level. This is true under what principle of development?
A. Development is relatively orderly.
B. Developmental takes place gradually.
C. While the pattern of development is likely to be similar, the outcomes of developmental processes and the rate of development are likely to vary among individuals.
D. Development as a process is complex because it is the product of biological, cognitive and socio-emotional.
D. The situation of Mark proves the interconnectedness of biological (by being undernourished), socio-emotional (parents about to separate), and cognitive (failure in school) dimensions of development.
Which is TRUE in the following statements?
A. Our development is like of caterpillar where we undergo distinct stages.
B. Heredity exerts a greater influence on human development than environment.
C. Development is not all-or-nothing with respect to varying issues of development.
D. What has been experienced in the earlier stages of development can no longer be changed.
C. Option A prescribes the discontinuity of development as opposed to continuity. Option B implies that nature is more important than nurture. Option D favors stability over change. However, psychologists agree that we must recognize the impact of both sides and that it would be unwise to favor one side over the other in all these various issues on development.
Which statement BEST resolves the nature-nurture controversy?
A. Nurture is clearly more important in development than nature.
B. Nature is clearly more important than nurture in human development.
C. Neither nurture nor nature plays a particularly strong role in development.
D. The interaction between nature and nurture is most important in development.
D. Most developmentalists have agreed that in the nature-nurture controversy, people must understand that both nature & nurture interact and they affect the child’s development.