Chelsea is an extravagant buyer of fashion stuff. Every time she notices an attractive ladies wear she tends to buy it without careful thinking. This maladaptive tendency happens when there is little shame and doubt. Erikson calls this as ________________.
B. Impulsiveness is the maladaptive behavior of stage 2. Autonomy vs. Shame and Doubt, which manifests as a person who jumps into situations without proper consideration. Impulsive buying is an example. This happens when the person experiences too much autonomy and very little to none on shame and doubt.
Wendell can understand that her mother can also be a daughter and a sister, all at the same time. This suggests that Wendell is in the:
A. sensorimotor stage
B. preoperational stage
C. concrete operational stage
D. formal operational stage
C. The concrete operational stage is the third stage of Piaget’s theory of cognitive development. This stage is characterized by the appropriate use of logic. Abstract, hypothetical thinking is not yet developed in the child, but children can only solve problems that apply to concentrate events or objects. His mother is somebody very concrete to him, thus he is able to understand the concept.
Which of the following is an example of a cognitive scheme?
A. looking at an object
B. grasping a rattle
C. sorting by color
D. sucking a pacifier
C. In psychology and cognitive science, a schema (cognitive scheme) describes a pattern of thought or behavior that organizes categories of information and the relationships among them. Sorting by color manifests the ability to organize information.
If you were to gluttonously eat an entire birthday cake, Freud would say that was caused by your
B. Id works on the pleasure principle. Ego is under reality principle. Superego is based on morality principle. Subconscious is part of the mind of which one is not fully aware but which influences one’s actions and feelings. Gluttonously eating a whole cake is giving in to one’s pleasures and desires.
Who was the founder of psychoanalysis?
A. Abraham Maslow
B. Alfred Adler
C. Carl Jung
D. Sigmund Freud
D. Psychoanalysis is a set of theories and therapeutic techniques related to the study of the unconscious mind. The discipline was established in the early 1890’s by Austrian neurologist Sigmund Freud.
____________occurs when children are provided with assistance by more competent peers or adults to enable the task to be done successfully.
D. In Vygotsky’s concept, a scaffold is a temporary support that is gradually taken away as needed when the child already succeeds with the task. This is provided by an MKO or more knowledgeable other (e.g. teacher, parents, peers).
Dino, a six-year-old child, is likely to learn, something in the zone of proximal development if:
A. the child has mastered all the skills necessary.
B. parents or teachers do not interfere.
C. the task is more difficult than the child can do alone.
D. the child needs little or no help from a parent or teacher.
C. In the zone, of proximal development. The teacher must never give a task that the learner already knows or can do on his own, or else the task becomes boring for the child. Vygotsky suggests that the learner must be given with tasks that are challenging and exciting enough, therefore, tasks above his capability. This will lead to the child needing the help or guidance of more capable other.
Vygotsky theory of learning is best known as a(n):
A. behaviorist approach.
B. information-processing approach.
C. structuralist approach.
D. social constructivist approach
D. Social constructivism emphasizes the collaborative nature of learning. Social constructivism was developed by post-revolutionary Soviet psychologist Lev Vygotsky.
Which of the following is TRUE according to Vygotsky?
A. Knowledge is individually constructed by the child.
B. Knowledge is gained through reading various texts.
C. Knowledge is constructed between people as they interact.
D. Knowledge is gained through reinforcement and punishment.
C. Vygotsky stressed the fundamental role of social interaction in the development of knowledge as he believed strongly that community plays a central role in the process of “making meaning.”
Which of the following is a teaching implication of Ecological Systems Theory?
A. anticipate student’s progression through his eight stages of human development.
B. emphasize the need to socialize and interact with others to learn.
C. validate that each child is unique and independent from his family and environment.
D. take into account the changing nature of society and society’s influence on the student.
D. Bronfenbrenner believed that a person’s development is affected by his social relationships and everything in his surrounding environment. Hence, it is important for teachers to look into the social circles of the child to help him develop.